Adnan A. Zulfiqar is an associate professor of law at Rutgers Law School. A legal scholar and historian, Adnan’s main fields are Islamic law, criminal law/procedure, and law in the Global South. His current research focuses on legal obligation, jihad and revolution, policing, and criminal codes.
Duties to the Collective: Jurists, Islamic law and the Search for Cohesion, 945 to 1258 CE
Duties to the Collective is the first book written on the overlooked story of collective duties in Islamic law. It explores the dynamic way in which jurists, between the tenth and thirteenth centuries CE, responded to desperate circumstances by expanding legal responsibility to maintain civilizational unity. The book uncovers how they utilized Islamic law to build a theoretical framework for greater cohesion—social and political. To promote solidarity, jurists reached into Islamic law’s toolbox and retrieved its most powerful motivating tool: duty. Jurists tasked themselves with fashioning more robust and functional doctrines on the duties central to communal life. Collective duties (farḍ kifāya) became the vehicle through which jurists sought to define a singular moral community that could endure even when the polity did not.